21.3.07

“自动更新”的联想

(2007年3月18日刊于南洋商报<<大事小谈>>专栏)

马华公会总会长黄家定在该党的党庆当天提出“自动更新”的概念之后,一个受英文教育的朋友问我,这个“自动更新”到底是什么意思?我一时想不到恰当的英语词汇,便上网查,发现有人译成“automatic renewal”,此时防毒软件弹出来警告有“木马”(Trojan)入侵电脑。当开启杀毒程式准备进行扫描时,我看到“auto-update”这个选项。嘿!这个字还挺顺眼的,而且还真有点“与时并进”的感觉。

马华公会把这个IT界人士耳熟能详的词汇用在政党组织方面,真可谓创举。姑且不论其用词是否恰当,“自动更新”引人注目是毋庸质疑的,至少已达到了宣传的效果,总比“新陈代谢”、“退位让贤”等传统字眼还令人印象深刻。

以上只是我的个人想法,但我撰此文不是来咬文嚼字的。好了,进入正题,从组织学的角度来谈谈“自动更新”。

缺乏正常的新陈代谢是很多组织面对的问题。由于业务的发展,组织也随之膨胀,内部结构开始变得臃肿、人浮于事、官僚主义盛行,各种潜规则林立,权力冲突不断,新老人员矛盾激化。最后是面临信息不畅,管理成本上升,而管理效率却日益下降,整个组织失去活力。

怎样防止一个单位的老化,怎样排除沉积下来的渣滓,这都是组织学的一个很重要的课题。

从领导学角度来说,领袖的一举一动,都会对整个组织文化造成深远的影响。以华盛顿为例,他对于权力的淡泊是世人称道的。华盛顿在第二届总统任期结束时坚决放弃连任;在帝位唾手可得之际,他更是视权力如草芥。他还说过:“我走在尚未踏实的土地上,我的所作所为将成为以后历届总统的先例。”

杰弗逊在第二届总统任期届满表示:“华盛顿在任总统八年后自愿放弃竞选,树立了榜样,我要仿效他。再多几个这样的先例,就会对任何一个想要延长总统任期的后继者们排除惯例的企图,增加障碍。”

这种模范作用,使迄今为止的40多任美国总统,几乎无人连任超过两届,只有第二次世界大战特殊时期的罗斯福总统是个例外。这种领导风范对整个美国制度的建设及组织文化,具有重大的促进、完善及沉淀的作用。

我在南洋商报总社出席台湾民主先行者施明德的讲座时,对他引用古人名言:“用师者王,用友者霸,用徒者亡”来说明不同的用人之法会导致不同的结局,甚为认同。施明德说,领袖用比他行的人会成王,用能力与他差不多的人可称霸一方,若像阿扁那样重用能力更差、只会阿谀奉承的“童子军”,就会步上灭亡之路。用人之道绝对能影响整个组织的结构和文化,在用人方面领袖不可不慎。

电脑安装的杀毒软体不时要“自动更新”,下载更先进的杀毒配套,才能应付破坏力日益强大的电脑病毒。组织是由人组成,有人的地方自然会有纷争,有纷争并不可怕,重要的是要有一套机制去化解纷争,“自动更新”的概念提供了一个相对稳定的接班机制,能将人事纠纷的破坏力减至最低程度,也对于组织内部的负面因素起着制衡作用。

简单地说,“自动更新”就是在位已久的领袖要有所醒觉,在适当的时候自动自发地提掖后进,退位让贤,这样整个组织才会源源不绝地注入新血,组织才会更加壮大。这种组织变革的方式,首先要求领袖拥有高度的政治道德,是温和、循序渐进的,与儒家强调尊老敬贤、注重和谐稳定的中庸精神是不谋而合的,与那种一味重用资历浅的“童子军”,对资深或才能出众者进行排挤、围堵、边缘化,逼其出走跳槽的“斗争型”组织而言,在组织文化的本质上有很大的差别。因此,对于相对保守、人员众多、结构庞大的组织,尤其是像马华公会这样的一个大政党而言,“自动更新”的概念是改革和稳定之间的一个最佳平衡点。

2 comments:

human book said...

List of racial discriminations in Malaysia, practiced by government as well as government agencies. This list is an open secret. Best verified by government itself because it got the statistics.

This list is not in the order of importance, that means the first one on the list is not the most important and the last one on the list does not mean least important.

This list is a common knowledge to a lot of Malaysians, especially those non-malays (Chinese, Ibans, Kadazans, Orang Asli, Tamils, etc) who were being racially discriminated.

Figures in this list are estimates only and please take it as a guide only. Government of Malaysia has the most correct figures. Is government of Malaysia too ashamed to publish their racist acts by publishing racial statistics?

This list cover a period of about 49 years since independence (1957).

List of racial discriminations (Malaysia):

(1) Out of all the 5 major banks, only one bank is multi-racial, the rest are controlled by malays

(2) 99% of Petronas directors are malays

(3) 3% of Petronas employees are Chinese

(4) 99% of 2000 Petronas gasoline stations are owned by malays

(5) 100% all contractors working under Petronas projects must be bumis status

(6) 0% of non-malay staffs is legally required in malay companies. But there must be 30% malay staffs in Chinese companies

(7) 5% of all new intake for government army, nurses, polices, is non-malays

(8) 2% is the present Chinese staff in Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF), drop from 40% in 1960

(9) 2% is the percentage of non-malay government servants in Putrajaya. But malays make up 98%

(10) 7% is the percentage of Chinese government servants in the whole government (in 2004), drop from 30% in 1960

(11) 95% of government contracts are given to malays

(12) 100% all business licensees are controlled by malay government e.g. Approved Permits, Taxi Permits, etc

(13) 80% of the Chinese rice millers in Kedah had to be sold to malay controlled Bernas in 1980s. Otherwise, life is make difficult for Chinese rice millers

(14) 100 big companies set up, managed and owned by Chinese Malaysians were taken over by government, and later managed by malays since 1970s e.g. MISC, UMBC, UTC, etc

(15) At least 10 Chinese owned bus companies (throughout Malaysia, throughout 40 years) had to be sold to MARA or other malay transport companies due to rejection by malay authority to Chinese application for bus routes and rejection for their application for new buses

(16) 2 Chinese taxi drivers were barred from driving in Johor Larkin bus station. There are about 30 taxi drivers and 3 are Chinese in October 2004. Spoiling taxi club properties was the reason given

(17) 0 non-malays are allowed to get shop lots in the new Muar bus station (November 2004)

(18) 8000 billion ringgit is the total amount the government channeled to malay pockets through ASB, ASN, MARA, privatisation of government agencies, Tabung Haji etc, through NEP over 34 years period

(19) 48 Chinese primary schools closed down since 1968 - 2000

(20) 144 Indian primary schools closed down since 1968 - 2000

(21) 2637 malay primary schools built since 1968 - 2000

(22) 2.5% is government budget for Chinese primary schools. Indian schools got only 1%, malay schools got 96.5%

(23) While a Chinese parent with RM1000 salary (monthly) cannot get school-text-book-loan, a malay parent with RM2000 salary is eligible

(24) 10 all public universities vice chancellors are malays

(25) 5% - the government universities lecturers of non-malay origins had been reduced from about 70% in 1965 to only 5% in 2004

(26) Only 5% is given to non-malays for government scholarships over 40 years

(27) 0 Chinese or Indians were sent to Japan and Korea under "Look East Policy"

(28) 128 STPM Chinese top students could not get into the course that they aspired e.g. Medicine (in 2004)

(29) 10% place for non-bumi students for MARA science schools beginning from year 2003, but only 7% are filled. Before that it was 100% malays

(30) 50 cases whereby Chinese and Indian Malaysians, are beaten up in the National Service program in 2003

(31) 25% is Malaysian Chinese population in 2004, drop from 45% in 1957

(32) 7% is the present Malaysian Indians population (2004), a drop from 12% in 1957

(33) 2 million Chinese Malaysians had emigrated to overseas since 40 years ago

(34) 0.5 million Indian Malaysians had emigrated to overseas

(35) 3 million Indonesians had migrated into Malaysia and became Malaysian citizens with bumis status

(36) 600000 are the Chinese and Indian Malaysians with red IC and were rejected repeatedly when applying for citizenship for 40 years. Perhaps 60% of them had already passed away due to old age. This shows racism of how easily Indonesians got their citizenship compare with the Chinese and Indians

(37) 5% - 15% discount for a malay to buy a house, regardless whether the malay is poor or rich

(38) 2% is what Chinese new villages get compare with 98% of what malay villages got for rural development budget

(39) 50 road names (at least) had been changed from Chinese names to other names

(40) 1 Dewan Gan Boon Leong (in Malacca) was altered to other name (e.g. Dewan Serbaguna or sort) when it was being officially used for a few days. Government try to shun Chinese names. This racism happened in around year 2000 or sort

(41) 0 churches/temples were built for each housing estate. But every housing estate got at least one mosque/surau built

(42) 3000 mosques/surau were built in all housing estates throughout Malaysia since 1970. No churches, no temples are required to be built in housing estates

(43) 1 Catholic church in Shah Alam took 20 years to apply to be constructed. But told by malay authority that it must look like a factory and not look like a church. Still not yet approved in 2004

(44) 1 publishing of Bible in Iban language banned (in 2002)

(45) 0 of the government TV stations (RTM1, RTM2, TV3) are directors of non-malay origins

(46) 30 government produced TV dramas and films always showed that the bad guys had Chinese face, and the good guys had malay face. You can check it out since 1970s. Recent years, this tendency becomes less

(47) 10 times, at least, malays (especially Umno) had threatened to massacre the Chinese Malaysians using May 13 since 1969

(48) 20 constituencies won by DAP would not get funds from the government to develop. Or these Chinese majority constituencies would be the last to be developed

(49) 100 constituencies (parliaments and states) had been racistly re-delineated so Chinese voters were diluted that Chinese candidates, particularly DAP candidates lost in election since 1970s

(50) Only 3 out of 12 human rights items are ratified by Malaysia government since 1960

(51) 0 - elimination of all forms of racial discrimination (UN Human Rights) is not ratified by Malaysia government since 1960s

(52) 20 reported cases whereby malay ambulance attendances treated Chinese patients inhumanely, and malay government hospital staffs purposely delay attending to Chinese patients in 2003. Unreported cases may be 200

(53) 50 cases each year whereby Chinese, especially Chinese youths being beaten up by malay youths in public places. We may check at police reports provided the police took the report, otherwise there will be no record

(54) 20 cases every year whereby Chinese drivers who accidentally knocked down malays were seriously assaulted or killed by malays

(55) 12% is what ASB/ASN got per annum while banks fixed deposit is only about 3.5% per annum

There are hundreds more racial discriminations in Malaysia to add to this list of "colossal" racism. It is hope that the victims of racism will write in to expose racism.

Malaysia government should publish statistics showing how much malays had benefited from the "special rights" of malays and at the same time tell the statistics of how much other minority races are being discriminated.

Hence, the responsibility lies in the Malaysia government itself to publish unadulterated statistics of racial discrimination.

If the Malaysia government hides the statistics above, then there must be some evil doings, immoral doings, shameful doings and sinful doings, like the Nazi, going on onto the non-malays of Malaysia.

Civilized nation, unlike evil Nazi, must publish statistics to show its treatment on its minority races. This is what Malaysia must publish……….

We are asking for the publication of the statistics showing how "implementation of special rights of malays" had inflicted colossal racial discrimination onto non-malays.

王孙文 said...

长江前浪推后浪,这就是政治的俗谚。

万年长青树就是政治的不倒翁。

冒出了头的新人,就必须好好顾着颈项,不然给太上老君砍了头,还不知死了!